- The population group in this research is "people who were born in Japan, who are of Korean nationality and who are from 18 to 30 years old".
- The representation of the population group is a list of the names of 70,000 people held by Korean Youth Association in Japan.
- The research was carried out over three months, from July to September in 1993, and it was mainly conducted by interviewing.
- 1,723 people were chosen at random and at even intervals as interviewees and there were 800 valid replies, a response rate of 46.4%.
EDUCATION and OCCUPATION
- no significant difference is observed between the education attainment level of Koreans and Japanese;
- however, some inconsistent social forces which tend to oppress education at the higher stratum and push up education at the lower stratus are suggested;
- occupational distribution suggests that a large percentage of earlier generation Koreans were forced into self-management positions; however
- Korean youths do not exhibit significant differences from Japanese of the same age.
- Judging from their subjective replies, fewer young interviewees have "an ethnic education in the wide sense" than interviewees who do.
- "An ethnic education in the wide sense" relates to some subjective factors and their living areas, but it doesn't relate to their social stratum.
- "Families" are mainly responsible for ethnic education, but the rate of instituted or half-instituted educational groups such as ethnic schools or ethnic associations is quite rare for ethnic education.
- The core of their "ethnic education in the wide sense" is their "life style" and their "mother language".
- Each ethnic educational agent has contributed to their quality of education to a greater or lesser degree, and it seems that education in life style and mother language, which are the cores of education, are shared between families and other systems.
- Their "life style" has been transmitted through various customs and events such as "family" religious practices, so it seems to be that their ethnic educational influences young Korean residents in Japan quite widely.
- However, on the whole, their knowledge of their "mother language" is very low; only when they "go abroad to their own country" or "go to their ethnic school", can they really master their mother language for the first time.
THREATS TO ETHNIC IDENTITY
- With regard to the percentage of discriminative experiences of young Korean residents in Japan, the majority have "non-discriminated experiences", but more than 40 per cent of them have experienced discrimination.
- Even they don't suffer discrimination, they quite frequently feel that Japanese people have discriminatory feelings towards them in their daily life. It seems to young Korean residents in Japan that discrimination is shown not only through visible behavior, but through daily conversation, a casual manner or a look, so which makes them feel "threatened", in spite of the vagueness.
- Most of them feel inferior because of racial discrimination in their formative years, but if they have an ethnic education, they don't have negative feeling among themselves.
- Even they feel inferior in their formative years, most of them can get over this as they grow older. This is because participating in ethnic education and ethnic associations give them positive feelings.
FORMATION of ETHNICITY
- ethnicity can be divided into two ethnic orientations,
- one of which is based on emotional ties with the brotherly ethnic group (relation orientation), the other is based on instrumental behavior related to ethnic issues (instrumental orientation);
- relation orientation is mainly formed "inheritably" through contact with ethnic tradition in the family;
- instrumental orientation is, for the most part, formed "acquisitively" by the education and the participation in the ethnic organization; and
- the degrees of discrimination and inequality do not have influences on the formation of ethnicity.
DISCRIMINATION AND ETHNICITY
- Discrimination has an indirect influence on their development, causing deprived and negative feelings.
- The reason the influence of these feelings can not be clearly ascertained is that they are offset by mutual positive and negative effect.
- Even though feelings of inferiority and deprivation are mentioned, this effect of discrimination is not regarded as being more important than others such as ethnic tradition in the family, the education and the participation in the ethnic organization.